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FAQ

PKD

  1. ARE YOUR KITTENS PKD NEGATIVE?

    Yes, all our breeding cats are PKD NEGATIVE. We DNA tested all of our past and present breeding cats and we now only work with PKD NEGATIVE cats.

  2. What is Polycystic Kidney Disease - PKD?

    Polycystic Kidney Disease is an inherited kidney disease that has been found in Persian/Exotic cats. Feline Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) has been reported sporadically in the literature since 1967, but actual study into this renal disease did not begin until 1990. In1990 an affected female Persian was referred to the Ohio State University teaching hospital with symptoms of renal failure. Offspring of this female were used to start a colony and begin research into this condition.

    PKD is a hereditary kidney disorder, which implicates that there are already cysts present at birth and usually in both kidneys. These cysts are cavities filled with fluids that originate from normal kidney tissue. In kittens these cavities are in the majority of cases very small (1 to 2 mm). As the animal matures these cavities will become larger (even larger than 2 cm) In one kidney there can be as many as 20 to 200 cysts present.

    PKD is also a well known kidney disorder in humans which affects over 5 million people worldwide.

  3. How is PKD diagnosed?

    PKD is most easily and effectively diagnosed by DNA testing. With DNA testing, there is no doubt if the cat possesses this gene or not.

  4. What does this disease cause in cats?

    Polycystic Kidney Disease is a slowly progressive disease. It clinically shows up later in life (late onset), with enlarged kidneys and kidney dysfunction on average at seven years of age. The condition is inherited and cysts are present from birth. The size of cysts can vary from less than one millimeter to several centimeters, with older animals having larger and more numerous cysts. Problems occur when these cysts start to grow and progressively enlarge the kidney, reducing the kidneys' ability to function properly. The ultimate end is kidney failure.

    Some of the clinical signs are depression, lack of or reduced appetite, excessive thirst, excessive urination and weight loss. There is a marked variability in how quickly individual cats succumb, with the possibility of the symptoms of PKD developing late enough in life that the cat can die of other causes before kidney failure. However, kidney failure is certain when and if the cysts grow and cause problems.

  5. What are the Symptoms of PKD?

    PKD itself has no symptoms. Only when PKD has progressed to the point of causing renal failure will symptoms occur, and those symptoms will be those associated with renal failure, and not PKD specific.

     The symptoms of chronic kidney failure are the same, regardless of the cause in cats. Weight loss, poor appetite, increased thirst, increased urination, lack of energy, vomiting - these are all common signs. We have to remember that symptoms only appear when 2/3 of kidney function is already lost - until then, the cat will appear normal. As well, routine blood testing cannot detect kidney failure until 2/3 of function is lost - before that, blood tests will be normal. The exception to this is a sensitive blood test for kidney function called the iohexol clearance test."

  6. Can two genetically PKD negative parents produce a PKD positive offspring?

    With Autosomal Dominant PKD, the only form of PKD so far identified and confirmed in cats, two genetic negative parents cannot produce a genetically positive offspring

  7. How is PKD Inherited?

    •Genetic studies in cats have shown that PKD in cats is autosomal (non sex linked gene) dominant. This means only one parent needs the gene to pass it onto the offspring. There is a 50% chance of a cat inheriting PKD if a parent has it. If a cat is genetically free of PKD it is not possible to pass it onto offspring.

  8. How progressive is this disease and life expectancy of a PKD positive cat?

    Autosomal Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is a progressive, inherited condition which causes multiple fluid filled cysts on the kidneys of Persians/Exotic cats & breeds with Persians/Exotics in their lines.

    Cysts are present from birth, but start out small, slowly increasing in size. Cysts can range from very small to several centimetres in diameter. The increasing size of the cysts damage the normal kidney tissue, eventually causing kidney failure.

    The number of cysts & the speed & size in which they grow varies from cat to cat. The average age of kidney failure in cats with PKD is 7 years, but some cats will suffer from kidney failure at an earlier age & some cats much later.

  9. Are there breeders still knowingly breeding PKD Positive Cats?

    Unfortunately there are many unethical breeders whom still knowingly and unknowingly breed PKD Positive Cats and will keep on creating more PKD Positive Cats without any regards for the health and life expentancy of these kittens and cats, or the heart break and financial burden that they cause the families that adopt them .

    As a consumer and a potential pet buyer, you have the right to ask the breeder if her/his breeding cats are PKD negative and ask for a guarantee that your new kitten is going to be PKD negative.

     

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POISON AND TOXIC MATERIALS

  1. What are some of the things in my home that can harm my cat?

    Top 10 Pet Toxins of 2010

    Both known and unknown toxins can be found hiding in our houses and yards. In 2010, the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) in Urbana, IL, fielded more than 167,000 phone calls about pets exposed to possibly poisonous substances.

    Human Medications
    Human medications are once again at the top of the list of pet toxins for 2010. Almost 25 percent of our calls concerned human medications accidentally ingested by pets. The most common culprits include over-the-counter medications (ibuprofen, acetaminophen), antidepressants and ADHD medications.

    Insecticides
    About 20% of the calls to the APCC are about insecticides. Insecticides are commonly used on our pets for flea control and around our houses to control crawling and flying bugs. The most serious poisonings occurred when products not labeled for use in cats were applied to them. Always follow label directions.

    Rodenticides
    Baits used to kill mice and rats are mostly grain based. Not only does this attract rodents, but it attracts dogs and cats. There are several different types of rodenticides that can cause seizures, internal bleeding or kidney failure. Always make sure these items are placed in areas that pets cannot access.

    People Food
    Xylitol, grapes, raisins, onions and garlic are commonly ingested by our pets. Grapes and raisins can cause kidney failure in dogs, while onions and garlic can cause anemia if enough is ingested. Xylitol, a sugar alcohol used to sweeten sugar free gums and mints, can cause low blood sugar and liver failure in dogs.

    Veterinary Medications
    Many medications made for our pets are flavored for ease of giving. Unfortunately, that means that animals may ingest the entire bottle of medication if they find it tasty. Common chewable medications include arthritis and incontinence medications. Contact your veterinarian if your pet ingests more than his proper dose of medication.

    Chocolate
    Chocolate contains methylxanthines, which act as stimulants to our pets. The darker the chocolate, the more methylxanthines it contains. Methylxanthines can cause agitation, vomiting, diarrhea, high heart rate, muscle tremors, seizures and death.

    Household Toxins
    Cleaning supplies, such as bleach, acids, alkalis and other detergents, can cause corrosive injury to the mouth and stomach. Other household items such as batteries and liquid potpourri can cause similar problems. Always keep these toxins behind securely locked doors.

    Plants
    Both house plants and outdoor plants can be ingested by our pets. Lilies can cause life-threatening kidney failure in cats, while sago palms can cause liver failure in dogs and cats. Keep house plants and bouquets away from your pets.

    Herbicides
    Many herbicides have a salty taste, and our pets will commonly ingest them. Always follow label directions and keep pets off treated areas until they are dry.

    Outdoor Toxins
    Antifreeze, fertilizers and ice melts are all substances that animals can find outdoors. Keep these items in securely locked sheds or on high shelves where pets cannot get to them.

    If you have any reason to suspect your pet has ingested something toxic, please contact your veterinarian or the Animal Poison Control Center’s 24-hour hotline at (888) 426-4435.

  2. What is Liver Fatty Disease-Acute Hepatic Failure

     

    Acute Hepatic Failure in Cats

    Hepatic failure, or acute liver failure, is a condition characterized by the sudden loss of 70 percent or more of the liver's function. This diseased state may be due to sudden, massive, hepatic necrosis (tissue death in the liver).

     

    Symptoms

     

    Primary and secondary hepatobiliary disorders - those dealing with the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts or bile - are generally associated with variable hepatic necrosis. However, acute liver failure from severe hepatic necrosis is an uncommon phenomenon. Acute liver failure can affect the body through a number of system failures:

    •Gastrointestinal: vomiting, diarrhea, blood in the stool (hematochezia)

    •Nervous system: hepatic encephalopathy (brain disease related to liver failure)

    •Hepatobiliary: the liver plus the gallbladder; jaundice, necrosis (tissue death) of the liver cells and bile duct cells

    •Renal: the tubules of the kidney may be injured from toxins/metabolites

    •Immune/Lymphatic/Hemic: imbalances in the blood and lymphatic systems, may lead to coagulant (clotting) complications

     

    Causes

     

    Acute liver failure is most often caused by infectious agents or toxins, poor flow of fluids into the liver and surrounding tissues (perfusion), hypoxia (inability to breathe), drugs or chemicals that are destructive to the liver (hepatotoxic), and excess exposure to heat. Necrosis (tissue death) sets in, with loss of liver enzymes and impaired liver function ultimately leading to complete organ failure.

    Toxins

    There are literally thousands of chemicals that could be toxic to the liver. a few examples of these chemicals that are commonly used to treat ill animals include:

     

    Rimadyl (arthritis treatment) in Labradors

    Thiacetarsamide (heartworm treatment)

    Ketaconazole (fungal treatment)

    Tylenol (acetaminophen)

    Glucocorticoids (cortisone)

    Anthelmintics (worming medication)

    Parasiticides

    Phenobarbital (epilepsy medication)

    Anesthesia can cause rare complications and organ system failure such as kidney liver or heart failure, visual impairment, clotting disorders and seizures.

     

    Chemicals that cause liver damage include carbon tetrachloride, insecticides, phosphorus, selenium, arsenic, iron and toxic levels of lead. Medications given in excess or over a prolonged time period can cause liver disease. Drugs that may damage the liver are anesthetic gases, antibiotics, antifungals, dewormers, diuretics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, testosterone preparations and corticosteroids.

     

     

    Acute liver failure also occurs due to extensive metabolic disorders in protein synthesis (albumin, transport protein, procoagulant and anticoagulant protein factors), and glucose absorption, as well as abnormalities in the metabolic detoxification process. If this condition is not treated promptly, it can result in death.

     

     Diagnosis

     

    Acute liver failure is diagnosed through a full blood workup (hematology), biochemistry analysis, urine analysis, biopsy (the removal and analysis of affected tissue), and ultrasound or radiology imaging.

     

    Hematology/biochemistry/urine analyses will test for:

    •Anemia

    •Irregularities in thrombocytes (clot promoting blood platelets)

    •Abnormally high liver enzyme activity, or liver enzymes spilling out into the bloodstream, signaling liver damage – tests will look for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymes in the bloodstream, as well as an increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and declining levels of aminotransferases (enzymes that cause the chemical change of nitrogen carrying amino)

    •Impairment of protein synthesis

    •Low blood sugar – particularly dangerous for cats

    •Normal to low blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration (i.e., nitrogen level in the urine)

    •The presence of bilirubin – the red-yellow bile pigment that is a degraded product of the deep red, nonprotein pigment in hemoglobin (the oxygen carrying pigment in red blood cells) – in the urine

    •The presence of ammonium urate crystals in the urine

    •The presence of sugar and granular casts (solid deposits) in the urine, indicating internal tubular injury from drug toxicity

     

    Lab Tests will be used to look for:

     

    •High values of total serum bile acid (TSBA) concentrations, which will indicate liver insufficiency. However, if non-hemolytic (not destructive to blood cells) jaundice has already been confirmed, TSBA findings will lose their significance in relation to acute liver failure

    •High plasma ammonia concentration; this, in conjunction with high TSBA concentrations, would be strongly indicative of hepatic insufficiency

    •Abnormalities in blood platelets and coagulation (blood clotting) factors

    •Tissue necrosis and cell pathology; biopsy (tissue sample) results will confirm or negate zonal involvements, and identify any existent underlying conditions

     

    Imaging tests will look for:

     

    •X-rays and ultrasound tests may indicate an enlarged liver, and other hepatic abnormalities, including conditions that may not be directly related to the liver.

     

    Treatment

     

    Hospitalization is vital for treating acute liver failure. Fluids and electrolytes, along with colloid (the gelatinous substance necessary for proper thyroid functioning) replacements and oxygen supplementation, are key aspects of treatment and care. Your cat will be placed on restricted activity in order to give the liver an opportunity to regenerate. Catheter feeding is recommended for highly unstable patients, while enteric feeding (feeding directly into the intestines) in small amounts is recommended for otherwise stable patients. A normal protein diet with supplemental vitamins E and K is advised.

     

    The common medications used for liver failure are antiemetics, drugs for hepatic encephalopathy (brain disease, with or without edema), hepatoprotectants (to decrease the activity of aminotransferases), coagulopathy drugs, and antioxidants.

     

    Hepatic lipodosis, or fatty liver syndrome, frequently occurs in cats in the United States. Its cause is not known, though, according to the Mar Vista Animal Medical Center, a poor-quality commercial diet may be a factor.

     

     

     

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Interesting Facts About Cats

  1. Interesting Facts About Cats

    99 Interesting Facts About . . . 

    Cats

     

    1.Every year, nearly four million cats are eaten in Asia.

    2.On average, cats spend 2/3 of every day sleeping. That means a nine-year-old cat has been awake for only three years of its life.

    3.Unlike dogs, cats do not have a sweet tooth. Scientists believe this is due to a mutation in a key taste receptor.

    4.When a cat chases its prey, it keeps its head level. Dogs and humans bob their heads up and down.

    5.The technical term for a cat’s hairball is a “bezoar.”

    6.A group of cats is called a “clowder.”

    7.Female cats tend to be right pawed, while male cats are more often left pawed. Interestingly, while 90% of humans are right handed, the remaining 10% of lefties also tend to be male.

    8. cat climb down

    A cat cannot climb head first down a tree because its claws are curved the wrong way

    A cat can’t climb head first down a tree because every claw on a cat’s paw points the same way. To get down from a tree, a cat must back down.

    9.Cats make about 100 different sounds. Dogs make only about 10.

    10.A cat’s brain is biologically more similar to a human brain than it is to a dog’s. Both humans and cats have identical regions in their brains that are responsible for emotions.

    11.There are more than 500 million domestic cats in the world, with approximately 40 recognized breeds.

    13.While it is commonly thought that the ancient Egyptians were the first to domesticate cats, the oldest known pet cat was recently found in a 9,500-year-old grave on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus. This grave predates early Egyptian art depicting cats by 4,000 years or more.g

    14.During the time of the Spanish Inquisition, Pope Innocent VIII condemned cats as evil and thousands of cats were burned. Unfortunately, the widespread killing of cats led to an explosion of the rat population, which exacerbated the effects of the Black Death.

    15.During the Middle Ages, cats were associated with withcraft, and on St. John’s Day, people all over Europe would stuff them into sacks and toss the cats into bonfires. On holy days, people celebrated by tossing cats from church towers.

    16. cat pet

    Cats are the most popular pet in North American

    Cats are North America’s most popular pets: there are 73 million cats compared to 63 million dogs. Over 30% of households in North America own a cat.

    17.The first cat in space was a French cat named Felicette (a.k.a. “Astrocat”) In 1963, France blasted the cat into outer space. Electrodes implanted in her brains sent neurological signals back to Earth. She survived the trip.

    18.The group of words associated with cat (catt, cath, chat, katze) stem from the Latin catus, meaning domestic cat, as opposed to feles, or wild cat.

    19.The term “puss” is the root of the principal word for “cat” in the Romanian term pisica and the root of secondary words in Lithuanian (puz) and Low German puus. Some scholars suggest that “puss” could be imitative of the hissing sound used to get a cat’s attention. As a slang word for the female pudenda, it could be associated with the connotation of a cat being soft, warm, and fuzzy.

    20.Approximately 40,000 people are bitten by cats in the U.S. annually.

    21.According to Hebrew legend, Noah prayed to God for help protecting all the food he stored on the ark from being eaten by rats. In reply, God made the lion sneeze, and out popped a cat.

    22.A cat’s hearing is better than a dog’s. And a cat can hear high-frequency sounds up to two octaves higher than a human.

    23.A cat can travel at a top speed of approximately 31 mph (49 km) over a short distance.

    24.A cat can jump up to five times its own height in a single bound.

    25.Some cats have survived falls of over 65 feet (20 meters), due largely to their “righting reflex.” The eyes and balance organs in the inner ear tell it where it is in space so the cat can land on its feet. Even cats without a tail have this ability.

    26. cat rub

    A cat rubs against people to mark them as their territory

    A cat rubs against people not only to be affectionate but also to mark out its territory with scent glands around its face. The tail area and paws also carry the cat’s scent.

    27.Researchers are unsure exactly how a cat purrs. Most veterinarians believe that a cat purrs by vibrating vocal folds deep in the throat. To do this, a muscle in the larynx opens and closes the air passage about 25 times per second.

    28.When a family cat died in ancient Egypt, family members would mourn by shaving off their eyebrows. They also held elaborate funerals during which they drank wine and beat their breasts. The cat was embalmed with a sculpted wooden mask and the tiny mummy was placed in the family tomb or in a pet cemetery with tiny mummies of mice.

    29 .In 1888, more than 300,000 mummified cats were found an Egyptian cemetery. They were stripped of their wrappings and carted off to be used by farmers in England and the U.S. for fertilizer.i

    30.Most cats give birth to a litter of between one and nine kittens. The largest known litter ever produced was 19 kittens, of which 15 survived.

    31.Smuggling a cat out of ancient Egypt was punishable by death. Phoenician traders eventually succeeded in smuggling felines, which they sold to rich people in Athens and other important cities.

    32.The earliest ancestor of the modern cat lived about 30 million years ago. Scientists called it the Proailurus, which means “first cat” in Greek. The group of animals that pet cats belong to emerged around 12 million years ago.

    33.The biggest wildcat today is the Siberian Tiger. It can be more than 12 feet (3.6 m) long (about the size of a small car) and weigh up to 700 pounds (317 kg).

    34.The smallest wildcat today is the Black-footed cat. The females are less than 20 inches (50 cm) long and can weigh as little as 2.5 lbs (1.2 kg).

    35.Many Egyptians worshipped the goddess Bast, who had a woman’s body and a cat’s head.

    36.Mohammed loved cats and reportedly his favorite cat, Muezza, was a tabby. Legend says that tabby cats have an “M” for Mohammed on top of their heads because Mohammad would often rest his hand on the cat’s head.

    37.While many parts of Europe and North America consider the black cat a sign of bad luck, in Britain and Australia, black cats are considered lucky.

    38.The most popular pedigreed cat is the Persian cat, followed by the Main Coon cat and the Siamese cat.

    39.The smallest pedigreed cat is a Singapura, which can weigh just 4 lbs (1.8 kg), or about five large cans of cat food. The largest pedigreed cats are Maine Coon cats, which can weigh 25 lbs (11.3 kg), or nearly twice as much as an average cat weighs.

    40. Siamese cross eyed

    Some Siamese cats are cross-eyed to compensate for abnormal optic wiring

    Some Siamese cats appear cross-eyed because the nerves from the left side of the brain go to mostly the right eye and the nerves from the right side of the brain go mostly to the left eye. This causes some double vision, which the cat tries to correct by “crossing” its eyes.i

    41.Researchers believe the word “tabby” comes from Attabiyah, a neighborhood in Baghdad, Iraq. Tabbies got their name because their striped coats resembled the famous wavy patterns in the silk produced in this city.

    42.Cats hate the water because their fur does not insulate well when it’s wet. The Turkish Van, however, is one cat that likes swimming. Bred in central Asia, its coat has a unique texture that makes it water resistant.

    43.The Egyptian Mau is probably the oldest breed of cat. In fact, the breed is so ancient that its name is the Egyptian word for “cat.”

    44.The costliest cat ever is named Little Nicky, who cost his owner $50,000. He is a clone of an older cat.

    45.A cat usually has about 12 whiskers on each side of its face.

    46.A cat’s eyesight is both better and worse than humans. It is better because cats can see in much dimmer light and they have a wider peripheral view. It’s worse because they don’t see color as well as humans do. Scientists believe grass appears red to cats.

    47.Spanish-Jewish folklore recounts that Adam’s first wife, Lilith, became a black vampire cat, sucking the blood from sleeping babies. This may be the root of the superstition that a cat will smother a sleeping baby or suck out the child’s breath.

    48.Perhaps the most famous comic cat is the Cheshire Cat in Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland. With the ability to disappear, this mysterious character embodies the magic and sorcery historically associated with cats.

    49.In the original Italian version of Cinderella, the benevolent fairy godmother figure was a cat.f

    50.Cat Detective

    Two Siamese cats discovered microphones hidden by Russian spies in Holland’s embassy in Moscow

    In Holland’s embassy in Moscow, Russia, the staff noticed that the two Siamese cats kept meowing and clawing at the walls of the building. Their owners finally investigated, thinking they would find mice. Instead, they discovered microphones hidden by Russian spies. The cats heard the microphones when they turned on.

    51.The little tufts of hair in a cat’s ear that help keep out dirt direct sounds into the ear, and insulate the ears are called “ear furnishings.”

    52.The ability of a cat to find its way home is called “psi-traveling.” Experts think cats either use the angle of the sunlight to find their way or that cats have magnetized cells in their brains that act as compasses.

    53.Isaac Newton invented the cat flap. Newton was experimenting in a pitch-black room. Spithead, one of his cats, kept opening the door and wrecking his experiment. The cat flap kept both Newton and Spithead happy.

    54.The world’s rarest coffee, Kopi Luwak, comes from Indonesia where a wildcat known as the luwak lives. The cat eats coffee berries and the coffee beans inside pass through the stomach. The beans are harvested from the cat's dung heaps and then cleaned and roasted. Kopi Luwak sells for about $500 for a 450 g (1 lb) bag.

    55.A cat’s jaw can’t move sideways, so a cat can’t chew large chunks of food.

    56.A cat almost never meows at another cat, mostly just humans. Cats typically will spit, purr, and hiss at other cats.

    57.A cat’s back is extremely flexible because it has up to 53 loosely fitting vertebrae. Humans only have 34.

    58. cat face to face

    Many cat owners think their cats can read their minds

    Approximately 1/3 of cat owners think their pets are able to read their minds.

    59.All cats have claws, and all except the cheetah sheath them when at rest.

    60.Two members of the cat family are distinct from all others: the clouded leopard and the cheetah. The clouded leopard does not roar like other big cats, nor does it groom or rest like small cats. The cheetah is unique because it is a running cat; all others are leaping cats. They are leaping cats because they slowly stalk their prey and then leap on it.

    61.A cat lover is called an Ailurophilia (Greek: cat+lover).

    62.In Japan, cats are thought to have the power to turn into super spirits when they die. This may be because according to the Buddhist religion, the body of the cat is the temporary resting place of very spiritual people.

    63.Most cats had short hair until about 100 years ago, when it became fashionable to own cats and experiment with breeding.

    64.Cats have 32 muscles that control the outer ear (humans have only 6). A cat can independently rotate its ears 180 degrees.

    65. cat sleeping

    During the nearly 18 hours a day that kittens sleep, an important growth hormone is released

    One reason that kittens sleep so much is because a growth hormone is released only during sleep.

    66.Cats have about 130,000 hairs per square inch (20,155 hairs per square centimeter)i

    67.The heaviest cat on record is Himmy, a Tabby from Queensland, Australia. He weighed nearly 47 pounds (21 kg). He died at the age of 10.

    68.The oldest cat on record was Crème Puff from Austin, Texas, who lived from 1967 to August 6, 2005, three days after her 38th birthday. A cat typically can live up to 20 years, which is equivalent to about 96 human years.

    69.The lightest cat on record is a blue point Himalayan called Tinker Toy, who weighed 1 pound, 6 ounces (616 g). Tinker Toy was 2.75 inches (7 cm) tall and 7.5 inches (19 cm) long.

    70.The tiniest cat on record is Mr. Pebbles, a 2-year-old cat that weighed 3 lbs (1.3 k) and was 6.1 inches (15.5 cm) high.

    71.A commemorative tower was built in Scotland for a cat named Towser, who caught nearly 30,000 mice in her lifetime.

    72.In the 1750s, Europeans introduced cats into the Americas to control pests.

    73.The first cat show was organized in 1871 in London. Cat shows later became a worldwide craze.

    74.The first cartoon cat was Felix the Cat in 1919. In 1940, Tom and Jerry starred in the first theatrical cartoon “Puss Gets the Boot.” In 1981 Andrew Lloyd Weber created the musical Cats, based on T.S. Eliot’s Old Possum’s Book of Practical Cats.

    75.The normal body temperature of a cat is between 100.5 ° and 102.5 °F. A cat is sick if its temperature goes below 100 ° or above 103 °F.

    76.A cat has 230 bones in its body. A human has 206. A cat has no collarbone, so it can fit through any opening the size of its head.

    77.A cat’s nose pad is ridged with a unique pattern, just like the fingerprint of a human.

    78.If they have ample water, cats can tolerate temperatures up to 133 °F.

    79.Foods that should not be given to cats include onions, garlic, green tomatoes, raw potatoes, chocolate, grapes, and raisins. Though milk is not toxic, it can cause an upset stomach and gas. Tylenol and aspirin are extremely toxic to cats, as are many common houseplants. Feeding cats dog food or canned tuna that's for human consumption can cause malnutrition.

    80.A 2007 Gallup poll revealed that both men and women were equally likely to own a cat.

    81.A cat’s heart beats nearly twice as fast as a human heart, at 110 to 140 beats a minute.

    82. cat paws

    Cat’s sweat only through their paws

    Cats don’t have sweat glands over their bodies like humans do. Instead, they sweat only through their paws.

    83.In just seven years, a single pair of cats and their offspring could produce a staggering total of 420,000 kittens.

    84.Relative to its body size, the clouded leopard has the biggest canines of all animals' canines. Its dagger-like teeth can be as long as 1.8 inches (4.5 cm).

    85.Cats spend nearly 1/3 of their waking hours cleaning themselves.

    86.Grown cats have 30 teeth. Kittens have about 26 temporary teeth, which they lose when they are about 6 months old.

    87.A cat called Dusty has the known record for the most kittens. She had more than 420 kittens in her lifetime.

    88.The largest cat breed is the Ragdoll. Male Ragdolls weigh between 12 and 20 lbs (5.4-9.0 k). Females weigh between 10 and 15 lbs (4.5-6.8 k).

    89.Cats are extremely sensitive to vibrations. Cats are said to detect earthquake tremors 10 or 15 minutes before humans can.

    90.In contrast to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during their domestication process.

    91.A female cat is called a queen or a molly.

    92.In the 1930s, two Russian biologists discovered that color change in Siamese kittens depend on their body temperature. Siamese cats carry albino genes that work only when the body temperature is above 98° F. If these kittens are left in a very warm room, their points won’t darken and they will stay a creamy white.

    93.There are up to 60 million feral cats in the United States alone.

    94.The oldest cat to give birth was Kitty who, at the age of 30, gave birth to two kittens. During her life, she gave birth to 218 kittens.

    95.The most traveled cat is Hamlet, who escaped from his carrier while on a flight. He hid for seven weeks behind a pane. By the time he was discovered, he had traveled nearly 373,000 miles (600,000 km).

    96.The most expensive cat was an Asian Leopard cat (ALC)-Domestic Shorthair (DSH) hybrid named Zeus. Zeus, who is 90% ALC and 10% DSH, has an asking price of £100,000 ($154,000).

    97.The cat who holds the record for the longest non-fatal fall is Andy. He fell from the 16th floor of an apartment building (about 200 ft/.06 km) and survived.

    98.The richest cat is Blackie who was left £15 million by his owner, Ben Rea.

    99.The claws on the cat’s back paws aren’t as sharp as the claws on the front paws because the claws in the back don’t retract and, consequently, become worn.

     

     Posted July 25, 2010

     

    References

     

    a Bidner, Jenni. 2006. Is My Cat a Tiger? New York, NY: Lark Books.

     

    b “Cat.” Online Etymology Dictionary. Accessed: July 20, 2010.

     

    c “Cat World Records.” Cat World. Accessed: July 20, 2010.

     

    d Clutton-Brock, Juliet. 2004. Cat. New York, NY: DK Publishing, Inc.

     

    e “EU Proposes Cat and Dog Fur Ban.” BBC News. November 20, 2006. Accessed: July 20, 2010.

     

    f Fogle, Bruce. 2006. Cats. New York, NY: Dorling Kindersley Limited.

     

    g Frith-Macdonald, Candida. 2008. Encyclopedia of Cats. New York, NY: Parragon Books Ltd.

     

    h “How Many Dogs and Cats Are Eaten in Asia?” Animal People Online. Accessed: July 20, 2010.

     

    i Piven, Hanoch. 2009. What Cats Are Made Of. New York, NY: Ginee Seo Books.

     

    j “Pussy.” Online Etymology Dictionary. Accessed: July 20, 2010.

     

    k Rochlitz, Irene. 2005. The Welfare of Cats. Norwell, MA: Springer.

     

    l Viegas, Jennifer. “Female Cats Are Right-Pawed, Males Are Lefties.” Discovery News. July 23, 2009. Accessed: July 20, 2010.

     

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Do Cats Feel Emotions?

  1. How cats communicate emotion

    The question whether cats feel emotion has become a much debated topic among feline behaviorists and scientists. Views of whether and how animals experience emotion have changed over the past few decades, and most cat guardians don't need a scientific study to tell them that their cats feel emotions: all they need to do is look into their feline companion's eyes to know beyond the shadow of a doubt that they do. Since cats express emotions in different ways than humans, being able to read and interpret feline emotion is a key to understanding cats better, and to preventing and correcting behavior problems.

     

    Science looks at feline emotion

    The topic of emotions in animals is controversial in science because emotions are hard to quantify. However, recent studies have shown that the feline brain works very similar to the human brain. This supports the notion that even just based on physiology, it is reasonable to assume that cats feel emotions.

     

    As early as in the 19th century, Charles Darwin found that there is an emotional and cognitive continuity between humans and animals. More recent research has determined that cats feel basic emotions such as love, fear, sadness, and happiness in much the same way as humans do. However, it may be impossible to examine emotion from a purely scientific viewpoint, and some researchers acknowledge that we may need to anthropomorphize (attribute human traits) to some extent when discussing animal emotions.

     

    How cats communicate emotion

    Cats utilize body language as a primary way to communicate. Some of these communications are obvious, others are more subtle. A cat's eyes, ears, tail and even her fur all offer cues to her emotional state.

     

    Cats respond to soft voices and petting, and may even return the petting by rubbing their head against your hand, or rolling over on their side. These mutual displays of affection support the notion that cats show emotion. Cats also form close relationships with other cats, as any cat guardian who has watched his cats lovingly groom each other can attest to.

     

    Cats also show negative emotions such as apprehension, fear and anger. These, too, are expressed most often through body language: you cat's ears may move back against his head, his eyes may narrow, or his fur may become puffed up (also known as piloerection.)

     

    Cats are extremely sensitive to human emotions. They seem to intuitively know when their humans need affection, but they will also pick up on their guardian's stress or anger. Studies have shown that human stress can actually make cats sick.

     

    Grief is another widely debated issue when it comes to cats and emotions. Do cats grieve after losing a companion? While we have no way of knowing for sure how cats perceive death, anecdotal evidence abounds that cats do indeed mourn their lost companions, both feline and human. It seems reasonable to assume that if something would sadden humans, it would also affect cats in a similar manner. The ASPCA's Companion Animal Mourning Project (1996) showed that a significant number of cats lost their appetite, became more affectionate or “clingy” with their guardians, or changed long-standing habits such as where they slept after losing a companion.

     

    Cat guardians need to be aware of and in tune with their cats' emotions. Not only will this increase understanding between the species, it will strengthen the bond between cat and human, and ensure a stress-free and happy life for both.

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